Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Short Bio: Fidelis Magalhaes, Chefe Casa Civil (Chief of Staff) – Office of the President, RDTL


Fidelis Manuel Leite Magalhães hails from Maliana, the capital district of Bobonaro. He is the second child of Manuel Magalhães and Regina Cardoso Gouveia Leita. Fidelis has three brothers and five sisters. He spent much of his childhood in Maliana. He joined resistance activities from quite a young age. At age 13 became a member of Sagrada Familia and became active in the youth movement opposing the indonesian occupation.

After the independence and following the death of his father, Fidelis quit school and began to work for the Jesuit Refugee Services as a driver to support his family. He was then promoted to become an officer. It was under the guidance of Fr. Frank Brennan that Fidelis began to work in the area of human rights. At the end of 2000 Fidelis was promoted to be a Human Rights and Refugee and Returnee officer. In early 2001 he was chosen to represent Timor Leste’s civil society at the UN Session on Human Rights in Geneva. It was his first international experience. In his own words, Fidelis described the experience as “surreal”. It was his first international travel and was asked to take part in a series of meetings when it had  only been a year since he began to self-thought english. Throughout the years, Fidelis continued to play an active role in peace and reconciliation efforts. 

From mid 2001 to 2002 Fidelis worked for various organizations including a short stint with the UNHCR as its Spokesperson and External Relations Assistant. In the same year he also served as the president of the Maliana Youth Committee. A committee consisted of all the youth organizations in the district.

In late 2002 he was awarded an East-West Center managed, US State Department scholarship to study at the University of Hawaii-Manoa.  While in Hawaii he majored in Political Science and minored in Literature. His main concentration was on political, social and literary theories. He claims that it was at the East West Center that he “grew academically. It was a privillege live with many academics from many countries at Hale Manoa”. He became an active  member of the Polisci department at UH-Manoa and graduated With Distinction. He was also a top student in Latin American and Iberian literature. 

Under the same arrangement he went to study at the University of Massachussets-Amherst. Although initially he intended to stay on, Fidelis decided to return to Hawaii citing insufficient funding to live on the US mainland.

Since 2006 Fidelis has worked in different capacities. In 2007 he worked with GTZ-IS as its Participation Expert in Timor-Leste on the national dialogue. Then in the same year he was appointed head of the Post-Transitional Dialogue funded by Norway. He then served as the team leader on  a number of initiatives and became the principal adviser on development and political issues.

In 2008 he, together with Bishop Gunnar Stallsett, Norway’s Special Envoy to Timor Leste and member of the Nobel Prize Committee, founded the High Level National Consensus Dialogue initiative to “provide a platform throughwhich the nation’s leaders can adress past human rights violations and find ways forward”.

 Some months later, Fidelis received a scholarship from the British Chevening scheme to study Political Economy at the London School of Economics.  After completing his studies in London he was awarded a Gulbenkian fellowship to read International Political Economy in Lisbon, Portugal. While in Lisbon he also attended post-graduate courses in International Relations at the Advanced School of Social and Political Sciences (ISCSP-UTL). He maintained the reputation of being a high achiever.

In October 2011 Fidelis returned to Timor Leste. He joined President Matan Ruak’s Ekipa da Vitoria (Success Team) in the presidential campaign as vice-president for  Socio-Political Research and Communication. He was then appointed by President Taur Matan Ruak as his spokesperson.

After the announcement of the outcome of the  presidential  election, President Ruak appointed Fidelis as his representative to ensure a smooth transition to start his mandate. On May 20, 2012 President Taur Matan Ruak nominated Fidelis to be his Chief of Staff. As such, Fidelis is presently the youngest person to hold a ministerial level position in Timor-Leste. His appointment demonstrates President Taur Matan Ruak’s committment to generational change and opens up the way for young people to actively participate in the running of the state. 

Monday, May 7, 2012

Lulik: Valor Fundamental Timoroan Nian






Hakerek Na’in: Jose ‘Josh’ Trindade
(Se hakrak kopia PDF, haruka email ba: trindade.timor@gmail.com)





  1. Introdusaun



Ita tomak hatene ona kona ba termus Lulik hanesan baibain ita rona, Uma Lulik, rai Lulik, bee Lulik, fatin Lulik, foho Lulik, Na’i Lulik, Amu Lulik, nsst. Bainhira Timoroan rona liafuan Lulik, derepente sira hamriik iha fatin, sira fó atensaun, sira fó respeitu, sira ta’uk, no Lulik dada sira halo tuir no sira la husu buat barak. Sira tuir de’it saida mak Lulik haruka.



Tanba lulik nia influensia makaas tebes ba Timoroan sira hanesan temi ona iha leten, ema balun interpreta katak lulik ne’e hanesan buat májiku ida. Maioria Timoroan sei halo tuir lulik, no lulik fó influensia makaas ba moris loroloron Timoroan nia, maibé investigasaun no dikusaun ba konseitu ida ne’e sei ki’ak tebetebes hosi akadémiku sira.



Lulik hetan ataka makaas hosi ema rai liur ne’ebé mai iha Timor. Ezemplu, Igreja dehan katak Lulik ne’e hanesan fiar animismu ida ne’ebé la di’ak, Portugés sira dehan lulik ne’e “atrasado” no ema Indonezia dehan “terbelakang/ketinggalan zaman”. Tanba ataka hirak ne’e, Timoroan sira sai moe no lakon fiar an nu’udár sosiedade ida. Sira moe atu ko’alia kona ba lulik, tanba ema hosi rai liur dada sira hodi hanoin katak lulik ne’e buat negativu ida ne’ebé la di’ak. To’o ohin loron, Timoroan barak moe nafatin no ko’alia aat buat hirak ne’ebé sira nia beiala sira rai hela ba sira. Timoroan sira iha konhesimentu no rona kona ba lulik maibé saida loloos mak lulik sira ladún hatene.



Artígu ida ne’e sei ko’alia kona ba ‘saida mak lulik’, ‘elementu hirak iha lulik nia laran no ita bele haree iha ne’ebé’, ‘aplikasaun lulik iha moris loroloron’, ‘lulik no kbiit external sira iha Timor-Leste’ no ‘oinsá lulik iha tempu agora daudaun’. Liu ida ne’e, artígu mós diskuti kona ba saida mak akontese bainhira Timoroan nega ka husik lerek lulik.



  1. Saida mak Lulik?



Lulik mai hosi liafuan Tetun Terik ne’ebé literalmente bele tradús dehan ‘labele’ no ‘sagradu’. Konseitu lulik ne’e rasik ita bele hetan iha grupu etno-linguistika hotuhotu iha Timor laran tomak. Hodi Bunak dehan ‘po’, ho Naueti ema bolu ‘luli’, ho Fataluku ema dehan ‘tei’ no Makasae ema dehan ‘phalun



Lulik refere ba mundu espíritual ka mundu kosmos ne’ebé ita labele haree ho matan, iha mundu ne’e nia laran iha na’in ida ka maromak, iha mós espíritu beiala sira nian, mundu ne’ebé mak moris nia hun no abut, no iha laran moos iha lei no regulamentu sira ne’ebé sagradu hodi regula relasaun entre ita ema no relasaun entre ema no natureza. Ba sosiedade Timor, lulik hanesan norma moral ne’ebé tetu ema nia halalok no determina saida mak bele halo no labele halo iha relasaun sosial entre Timoroan.



Iha relasaun entre ema, lulik determina ka regula saida mak Timoroan tenke halo iha sira nia moris sosial iha sosiedade nia laran. Iha momentu ne’e, lulik sai hanesan baze ba moral atu ita bele sukat saida mak di’ak no saida mak la di’ak/sala iha sosiedade. Nu’udár ezemplu, lulik regula relasaun, direitu no obrigasaun entre maun no alin, feen no la’en, fetosan no umane, labarik no inan-aman, feton no nan no ema individual ho ninia sosiedade,



Iha relasaun entre ema no natureza, Lulik regula oinsá ita ema trata natureza (liuliu rai) ne’ebé suporta moris. Iha ne’e, lulik ijiji atu ita ema respeita sasán importante natureza nian hanesan rai, bee, ailaran/aihun, fatuk, nsst. Tanba ida ne’e mak Timoroan sira sempre halo ritual ka seremónia molok ku’u aihan iha toos no natar ka bainhira kuda fini. Seremónia no ritual hirak ne’e maneira ida hosi Timoroan sira hodi fó agredesimentu ba rai nia bokur ne’ebé fó ona rezultadu di’ak ba sira no sira he’in atu hetan kolheita di’ak liu tan iha tempu oinmai. Seremónia ‘sau batar’ molok ku’u batar nu’udár ezemplu ida no ida ne’e hanesan ritual ida ne’ebé importante tebes ba Timoroan sira.



Objetivu hosi lulik nu’udár filozofia ida mak garantia dame no hakmatek (trankuilidade) ba sosiedade tomak liu hosi mantein balansu entre valor sira ne’ebé la hanesan (ka iha opozisaun ba malu hanesan valor inan/femininu no valor aman/maskulinu). Ezemplu, Timoroan fiar katak, dame no trankuilidade bele hetan liu hosi balansu ne’ebé di’ak entre mundu naroman (mundu ita ema nian) no mundu nakukun (mundu espíritual nian). Iha ne’e, ema iha mundu naroman tenke halo tuir lei no regulamentu sagradu sira ne’ebé beiala sira hamoris tiha ona. Lei no regulamentu sagradu sira ne’e bele hanesan relasaun harmónia entre individual ida ho ninia familia, knua ida ho ninia sosiedade, nsst. Lei no regulamentu sagradu ne’e mós regula relasaun entre fetosan no umane ne’ebé relasaun ida ne’e tenke iha harmónia nia laran atu dame no hakmatek bele hetan no prosperidade bele buras iha ema nia leet.



Lulik nu’udár sistema ida la’o tuir konseitu ‘dualizmu’ ne’ebé dezenvolve hosi antropolojia na’in ida naran Van Wouden (1968 [1935]). Iha konseitu ida ne’e, sempre iha buat oin rua ne’ebé kontraditóriu maibé sempre komplementa no fó balansu ba malu iha moris. Iha Timor-Leste, ita hatene iha tasi feto – tasi mane, rai ulun – rai ikun, fetosan – umane, belak – kaibauk, loron – fulan, nsst. Estrutura dualistiku ida ne’e antropolojia na’in sira uza barak hodi explika sosiedade iha Indonezia Leste inklui Timor-Leste (Trindade 2008, 178).



Ita uza karik nosaun dualizmu, ita bele obzerva oinsá Lulik nu’udár sistema ida regula relasaun entre elementu/valor sira ne’ebé iha opozisaun ba malu iha moris maibé sira fó balansu no komplementa malu. Ita bele haree iha diagrama kraik tuirmai:




Diagrama 1: Mundu kosmolojia ho Lulik iha klaran (Lulik Circle)



Diagrama leten bele simplifika iha tabela kraik tuirmai:



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Lulik, nu’udár sentru ritual, nia mak konseitu ida, mundu kosmos, entidade ne’ebé aas liu, mundu espíritual nian, beiala sira nia fatin, hun ba moris, nível ba moral, valor fundamental (kabuar klaran liu)

Mundu Femininu (klaran), reprezenta valor femininu mak dame, fertilidade no prosperidade (kabuar daruak)

Mundu Masculine (liur), reprezenta valor masculine mak seguransa no protesaun (kabuar ninin)

Rai

Lalehan

Kbiit Ritual

Kbiit Politikal

Uma Lulik Ritual nian

Uma Lulik Politikal nian

Dato/bei

Liurai

Valor Femininu

Valor Maskulinu

Umane

Fetosan

Fó moris

Simu moris

Indíjena

Malae

Tuan

Foun

Rain Na’in

La’o Rai

Valor Foun

Valor Tuan

Elementu tolu: Lulik, mundu femininu, mundu maskulinu liga malu metin no depende ba malu. Sira komplementa malu no sira nia relasaun asimetrik. Hirarkia hosi elemntu tolu ne’e hanesan tuirmai:

·         ‘Lulik’ mak importante liu hosi elementu tolu ne’e tanba nia mak kaer valor importante liu ba sosiedade jeralmente. Ema fiar katak Lulik mak moris nia abut. Ita bele dehan, moris mai hosi mundu nakukun, hamoris na’in, ka maromak ne’ebé hela iha mundu lulik nia laran, nune’e duni lulik hanesan núkleus ba valor sira hotu. Ema ruma karik kontra lulik, entaun sira kontra sira nia moris nia abut, nune’e duni sira sei hetan malisan no sorte aat iha sira nia moris.

·         Área importante daruak mak ‘área femininu’, dame no prosperiedade mai hosi ne’e. Área ida ne’e área feto ninian no área ida ne’e importante tebes tanba moris mai hosi lulik nia laran, liu hosi área femininu (feto) hafoin mak ba iha área maskulinu. Feto nia fertilidade importante tebes iha ne’e no ida ne’e feto nia pozisaun sai aas tebes iha sosiedade Timor nian.

·         ‘Área maskulinu’ responsibliza hodi fó seguransa no protesaun ba área rua iha laran (mundu laran nian). Iha ne’e, área maskulinu/aman/mane proteje moris nia abut. Sira oferese protesaun no seguransa hodi troka ho valor femininu (valor moris ninia) hosi elementu rua iha laran.

·         Rama oan rua reprezenta oinsá valor sira ne’ebé iha sulin iha diresaun opozisaun hodi kompleta malu. Valor femininu halai ba liur ba área maskulinu no valor maskulinu halai ba laran ba iha área femininu.



Ita tenke nota katak kategozasaun iha leten hanesan atudu ia diagrama 1 laos buat ida ke mate iha fatin ou static. Ne’e signifika katak, sira nebe tama ia area maskulinu bele muda ba ia area femininu ou husi femininu ba iha area maskulinu depende ba okasaun. Nudar familia ou individual id abele sai hanesan umane ba feto hotu-hotu no sai hanesan fetosan ba mane hotu-hotu iha ligasaun fetosan-umane. Ezemplu seluk, Timoroan sai rai nain wainhira sira iha sira nia fatin rasik maibe sira sai malae/estranjeiro wainhira sira ba iha fatin seluk. Buat ida la muda an mak Lulik. Lulik hela metin iha ninia fatin.





  1. Ita Bele Haree elementu Lulik Nian Iha Ne’ebé?



Elementu hosi lulik bele haree iha uma lulik nia kakuluk. Ita bele haree iha foto kraik tuirmai:




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Foto 1: Uma Lulik iha Watulari, Viqueque. Fó atensaun ba karau dikur, manu Pombo no fitun. Haree mós kór metan, matak no mutin


Foto 2: Uma Lulik iha Mota Ulun, Liquica. Fó atensaun ba karau dikur, manu Pombo no fitun. Haree mós kór metan, matak no mutin


Foto 3: Uma Lulik iha Buibela, Matebian, Viqueque. Fó atensaun ba karau dikur, manu Pombo no fitun. Haree mós kór metan, matak no mutin (Foto hosi Giant Panda. http://www.panoramio.com/photo/1066495?source=wapi&referrer=kh.google.com)







Hosi foto Uma Lulik tolu iha leten, ita haree karau dikur, manu pombu, fitun, kurasaun, nomós kór hanesan metan, matak no mutin. Símbolu no kór sira ne’e bele explika tuirmai:

·         Fitun no kór mutin - reprezenta lulik ne’e rasik, maromak, hamoris na’in, no espíritu beiala sira nian. Iha Diagrama 1, fitun no kór mutin nia fatin mak parte ida klaran liu iha kabuar lulik.

·         Manu pombu no kór matak – reprezenta inan ka femininu, símbolu fertilidade, dame no prosperiedade nian. Iha uma lulik balun hanesan uma lulik hosi Bunak no Tetun Terik nian balun, sira uza ‘susun’ hodi reprezenta valor femininu, no baibain ita bele haree iha odamatan ka airiin. Iha Diagrama 1, manu pombu no kór matak nia fatin mak parte ida klaran daruak iha kabuar lulik.

·         Karau dikur no kór metan – reprezenta aman ka maskulinu nu’udár símbolu ba forte, seguransa no protesaun. Iha Diagrama 1, karau dikur no kór metan nia fatin mak parte ida ninin liu iha kabuar lulik.



Bainhira ita obzerva Uma Lulik barabarak besik liu tan, ita haree katak manu pombu no karau dikur ita bele haree momoos iha uma nia kakuluk, maibé fitun ne’ebé reprezenta valor fundamental (the core values) dala ruma ladún klaru, hanesan uma lulik kraik tuirmai:




<><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><>





Foto 5: Uma Lulik (hosi Venilale, liman karuk no Laga, liman loos) ho karau dikur no manu Pombo iha uma nia kakuluk (Foto hosi David Palazon)


Foto 6: Uma Lulik nia kakuluk iha Liquica (Mambai sira nia uma). Sira uza fulan hodi representa valor femininu ou fertilidade.



Ezemplu seluk ita bele haree hosi livru Rui Cinatti nian ho títulu, “Tipos de casas timorenses e um rito de consagracão” (1965), hanesan iha kraik tuirmai:




<><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><> <><><><>



Foto 6: Uma kakuluk hosi Mambai sira nian besik Maubisse

Foto 7 : Dezenhu Uma Kakuluk bazeia ba Lospalos sira nia Uma Lulik hosi Rui Cinatti nia livru



Foto 8: Dezenhu Uma Lulik nia Kakuluk bazeia ba Uma hosi Oecusse/Baikeno hosi Rui Cinatti nia livru

Foto 9: Mambai nia Uma Lulik nia Kakuluk ida tan husi Rui Cinatti nia livru



Ita bele tau uma lulik nia kakuluk no ninia kór sira iha diagrama mundu kosmolojia Timoroan ninian hanesan tuirmai:




Diagrama 2: Uma Lulik nia kakuluk no kór tradisional iha mundu kosmolojia Timor nian



Importante ba ita atu fó atensaun ba kór tolu ne’ebé hatudu iha diagrama leten tanba Timoroan sira uza kór sira ne’e hodi reprezenta sira nia filozofia moris nian. Idealmente bandeira nasional loloos uza kór hirak ne’e. Nune’e mós balada sira ne’ebé iha Uma Lulik nia kakuluk hanesan karau no pombu tenke sai símbolu nasional ba Timoroan nu’udár nasaun ida. Ida ne’e sei hamoris fundasaun ida ne’ebé forte hodi dezenvolve identidade nasional Timoroan nian di’ak liu tan.



  1. Lulik iha Moris Loroloron



Lulik sei fó influensia makaas ba Timoroan sira nia moris loroloron iha asuntu kraik tuirmai:



4.1 Sistema Fiar



Sistema fiar Lulik nian rekonhese entidade ne’ebé aas liu ho naran ‘Maromak’. Nosaun Maromak iha kontextu ida ne’e la hanesan ho ‘Maromak’ ne’ebé iha Igreja Katolika, tanba ‘Maromak’ iha ninia konseitu orijinal reprezenta ideia fertilidade, mak femininu ne’ebé hosi Timoroan nia matan ‘Maromak’ ida ne’e mak hun hosi moris, dame, fertilidade no prosperiedade. Iha okaziaun ne’e ‘Maromak’ mak femininu ida, ninia jéneru mak feto (inan) no ida ne’e diferente ho Maromak Igreja nian tanba Igreja nia maromak ne’e ‘Aman Maromak’. Atu habadak, Timor iha ninia konseitu orijinal adora ‘Maromak Feto/Inan Maromak’ no Igreja adora ‘Maromak Mane/Aman Maromak’.



Ema ida hosi lubuk ida, antropolojia na’in David Hicks (1984) ne’ebé estuda kona ba sistema fiar Timoroan nian konfirma figura femininu (feto/inan) ida iha Timoroan nian sistema fiar. Hicks hakerek katak, Timoroan nian mítu (myth) no ritual halai ba halai mai kona ba dualizmu no polaridade femininu/maskulinu. Iha distritu Viqueque iha fatin ne’ebé Hicks hala’o ninia peskiza ba ema Tetun Terik sira, fiar tradisional nian explika katak ita ema orijinalmente sa’e hosi kuak rua ka ‘vajina’ ho naran Mahuma no Leki Bui uza tali lulik hodi sa’e mai. Ema sira ne’e mak sai nu’udár beiala. Hicks mós nota katak, uma tradisional iha odamatan balun ne’ebé refere ba nu’udár ‘vajina’ no uma laran refere ba nu’udár ‘knotak’, espasu femininu nian. Hicks explika liu tan katak, ema Tetun Terik iha Viqueque fahe sira nia mundu ba oin rua, mundu okos/nakukun no mundu leten/naroman ne’ebé mundu rua ne’e liga ba malu liu hosi ‘vajina’. Feto mak domina iha mundu okos/nakukun, mundu materna ne’ebé sagradu ka lulik no mane domina mundu leten/naroman, mundu paternal ka sekular. Mundu rua ne’e tenke la’o hamutuk iha harmónia nia laran, lae karik ki’uk/maran (infertilidade), moras no mate sei kona ema. Hicks hakerek katak feto nia knar importante tebes iha relijiaun Timoroan nian.



Saida mak Hicks hetan hosi ema Tetun Terik iha Viqueque konsistente ho buat ne’ebé mak Cristalis ho Scott (2005) hetan, ne’ebé sira explika sira nia rezultadu peskiza katak:

“Kolesaun estátua ida, rai ho kuidade iha ai-balun nia laran, subar iha fatin segredu ida iha uma laran iha kapital Timor-Leste nian, Dili. Estátua furak ne’e feto ida ho ninia orgaun seksual hatudu momoos. Molok invazaun Indonezia, estátua hirak ne’e rai iha sira nia fatin espesial iha foho lulik nia leten no iha uma lulik nia laran, no Timoroan hahi’i/hana’i/hauelok/adora sira nu’udár symbol hosi fertilidade no kontinuasaun hosi jerasaun iha knua ka suku ida” (p.11).



Liu tan Maromak, Lulik mós rekonhese espíritu beiala sira nian (hirak ne’ebé mate ona). Timoroan fiar katak, espíritu beiala sira nian fó influensia pozitivu iha moris loroloron ka fó influensia negativu (la di’ak) bainhira falta respeitu ba espíritu hirak ne’e. Ida ne’e mak razaun tansá Timoroan fó respeitu aas ba sira ne’ebé mate ona.



4.2 Ideia Jéneru no Feto nia Pozisaun



Hanesan explika ona iha leten katak Timoroan nia relijiaun fiar ba entidade femininu ida ho naran ‘Maromak’. Nosaun ida ne’e defini ona kona ba feto nia importansia no sira nia pozisaun iha sosiedade Timor. Ema hahi’i/hana’i/hauelok/adora feto nia valor fertilidade. Iha kazu ida ne’e, Timoroan fiar katak feto mak sentru ba moris, moris sai hosi feto, feto mak bele ko’us, nune’e feto sai na’in ba moris no mane sai hosi feto. Nosaun ne’e diferente ho ideia Modernu/Kristaun/Oeste nian ne’ebé dehan katak mane mak sai na’in ba moris, mane mak hun hosi moris, Eva mai hosi Adaun nia ruin. Ita bele haree katak nosaun ida ne’e la di’ak ba feto nia pozisaun no pozisaun feto nian iha sosiedade namlele iha ne’e tanba ideia ida ne’e sujere katak feto tenke depende ba mane. Ida ne’e ideia inan ba patriarkial iha ita nia sisiedade.



Bainhira ema hahi’i feto nia fertilidade, ida ne’e mós fó impaktu ne’ebé ladún di’ak ba feto tanba feto labele expresa sira nia seksualidade ka ko’alia kona be sira nia saude reproduktiva iha publiku. Baibain iha Timor ita rona ‘Feto hakat klot, Mane hakat luan’, ida ne’e hatudu katak mane sira ne’ebé okupa área maskulinu iha vantajen di’ak halo ligasaun ho liur ne’ebé nakonu ho matenek foun. Tanba ne’e mak durante tempu kolonial mane mak barak liu ba eskola tanba eskola sempre ligadu ho ema kolonial sira, ema hosi rai liur. Ligasaun ida ne’e akontese iha mundu maskulinu de’it, nune’e transferensia matenek hosi malae sira hola fatin iha mundu maskulinu no barak liu ho mane sira. Estatistika kona ba nível alfabetizasaun iha Timor-Leste hatudu momoos ida ne’e (mane aas liu feto – númeru mane ne’ebé edukadu barak liu feto).



Iha sosiedade Timor, ita refere ba feto dehan ‘Feto Maromak’. Baibain ita rona ema dehan, “respeita feto maromak’. Ita respeita feto, tanba hanesan explika ona iha leten, mane hotuhotu mai hosi feto. Idealmente, labele iha violensia hasoru feto tanba sira mak moris nia hun.



Teoria kona ba posisaun feto tuir konseitu Lulik iha sociedade Timor-Leste furak tebtebes, maibe artigu ne’e rekuinhese katak agora dadaun seidauk iha balansu entre feto ho mane iha vida sosial, ekonimia no politik. Feto nia involvementu iha area sira ne’e sei minmu tebtebes. Atu dada feto sira sai husi area femininu (area domestiku) hodi partisipa iha vida sosial, ekonomiku no politika iha area maskulinu (area externu) presija kapasidade/skill nebe subsiente. Ida ne’e la’os deit aplika ba feto maibe mane mos tenke iha kulidade natoon hodi bele partisipa iha vida sosial, ekonomiku no politika. Ho lian seluk it abele dehan, mane sira nebe laiha kapasidade/skill sira mos labele partispa iha area sosial, ekonomiku no politika. Tamba ne’e ital abele fo kulpa ba falta partisipasaun feto ba kultura lokal ou mane Timoroan maibe ida ne’e kulpa istoria colonial ninian. Ida ne’e tanba besik sekulu 5 nia laran durante tempu okupasaun kolonial, mane Timoroan iha opsaun nebe limitadu no moris iha presaun nia laran. Kondisaun ida ne’e la fo oportunidade ba feto sira hodi livre desenvolve sira nia kapasidade ou ba eskola. Nune’e mos ema kolonial sira prefere servisu ho mane, tamba ne’e mane iha oportunidade luan liu atu desenvolve sira kapasidade. Tanba ida ne’e mak ita hare estatistika kona ba nivel edukasaun mane nian as liu feto sira no ida ne’e kulpa kolonial nian laos kulpa kultura.



Aktivista jeneru nasional no internasional sira iha Timor-Leste promove no kampanha kona ba ideias feminismu liberal (luta kontra ideias patriarchal) maibe falta konsiderasaun ba iha konseitu/perspetivu lokal kona ba jeneru. Timoroan ninia definisaun kultural kona feto, sira nia posisaun iha sosiedade, status no kontribusaun ba iha moris diak familia nia no sosiedade jeralmente falta rekhuinesementu no iha ema balun hanoin buat hirak ne’e laiha. Ema barak hanoin Timoroan nian konseitu kona ba jeneru atrasado tebes no laiha buat positive ruma husi konseitu kultural nebe beaila sira rai hela. Ida ne’e laos deit ignorante, maibe mos hanesan humiliasaun (hateke tun) ida ba konseitu lokal. Idealmente, Timoroan sira tenke buka tuir no koko atu kompriende oinsa feto sira nia knar, posisaun no status defini iha Timor nia kultura. Halo kampanhia kona ba feminism liberal iha nasaun foun ida hanesan Timor-Leste labele lao idak tamba feminismu liberal haer liu ba ema individual wainhira kultura Timor labele haketak individual ida, feto ka mane, husi sira nia relasaun nebe kompleksu ho sira nia familia no sosiedade. Iha parte seluk, laiha siguransa social wanhira ita hakat liu familia iha nasaun foun Timor-Leste tamba nudar nasaun ida, Timor-Leste sei falta infrastutura no sistema sira hodi supporta ideias liberalismu hodi lao ba oin. Ida tan mos, feminismu liberal foka liu ba valor ekonomiku feto nia no definisaun kultural defini feto liu ida ne’e. Nudar ijemplu, kultura Timor defini feto nia valor fetilidade nebe sai fonts ba moris (valor ritual feto nian) iha valor ekonomiku nia sorin





4.3 Sistema Politika



Iha sistema politika Timoroan nian rekonhese importansia hosi autoridade nu’udár fontes ba lejitimasaun politika iha poder nia sorin. Iha Timor nia konseitu, autoridade no poder sempre komprende hamutuk maibé iha separasaun ne’ebé klaru iha ninia jéneru (inan no aman). Iha ne’e, autoridade mak inan/femininu no poder maka aman/maskulinu. Bainhira autoridade mak la iha ho poder ka poder mak la iha ho autoridade rezulta dizastre ba sosiedade. Atu hamoris harmónia iha sosiedade nia laran, autoridade no poder tenke halo verifikasaun no fó balansu (check & balance) ba malu.



Fox (2008) fó sumáriu katak, sentru ba governasaun tuir tradisaun Timoroan nian mak autoridade no poder fahe malu. Ideia autoridade mak aas liu iha konsietu governasaun ne’ebé ida ne’e reprezenta unidade nia laran (inner unity); símbolikamente iha karakteristiku femininu, iha fatin de’it, nonok. Kontrariu ho ida ne’e, kbiit bele oioin no barak, símbolikamente maskulinu, ativu, barulhu. Sé de’it ka saida de’it mak iha poder, labele halo asaun bainhira la iha lisensa ka rekonhesimentu hosi autoridade. Poder bele ko’alia hodi autoridade nia naran, maibé nia la’os autoridade ou nia bele sai hanesan autoridade se la husik ninia rekursu ba forsa. Bainhira la iha diferensia ba autoridade, poder ne’ebé forsa liu mós bele lakon ninia aliansa. Maibé ho autoridade, sei iha balansu – iha poder ne’ebé oioin – ne’ebé repete no kompleta malu. Tanba ne’e iha Timor iha variedade nível ba delegasaun poder ne’ebé bele verifika no fó balansu ba malu no mantein koherensia hodi hasoru inimigu (p.121).



Iha Lulik nia estrutura politika, iha Dato (autoridade) ho naran ‘Liurai Tur Fatin’ ne’ebé fó orden ba ‘Liurai La’o Rai’ (poder), liurai ne’ebé exekuta orden no halo ligasaun ho ema hosi liur. Iha kazu ida ne’e, Liurai Tur Fatin konsidera hanesan femininu ho autoridade ka Liurai Feto no Liurai La’o Rai konsidera hanesan maskulinu ho poder ka Liurai Mane. Ohin loron bainhira ema temi dehan ‘Liurai’, ida ne’e maioria refere ba Liurai Mane símbolu hosi politik na’in iha suku laran ida. Ema hotu konhese no hatene liurai ida ne’e tanba sira baibain halo ligasaun ba liur, tanba ne’e sira nia naran ema hotu hatene, maibé iha sira nia estrutura interna sira hakruk ba Liurai Tur Fatin (Dato).



Sistema politika Timoroan nian ne’ebé explika iha leten simplifika iha diagrama kraik tuirmai:






Diagrama 3: Sistema politika iha mundu kosmolojia Timor nian



Agora dadaun iha kontestu nasaun-estadu, knar Liurai tradisional nian Chefe Suko sira mak agora troka. Ida ne’e mak rasaun tamba sa mak buat hotu-hotu wainhira tama iha Suko laran ida sempre liu husi Cefe Suko. Iha okasaun ne’e, Chefe Suko (uluk Liurai) sai hanesan portaun (odamatan boot), mahein (guarda), nebe simu bainaka no halo ligasaun ba rai liur. Ida ne’e muda Liurai tradisional sira nia knar sai hanesan simbolik no ritualistic. Signifika katak, Liurai tradisional sira nia knar agora dadaun hanesan simbolik ou femininu (ritual), laos knar maskulinu (politik) hanesan tempu uluk.



4.4 Oinsá Lulik fó Kastigu Ema?



Timoroan fiar katak, bainhira iha ema ida kontra Lulik, nia sei hetan kastigu iha ninia moris daudaun nian la’ós bainhira nia mate ona. Kastigu ida ne’e la’ós de’it individual refere (ema ne’ebé kontra Lulik) mak hetan maibé kastigu mós bele kona ninia inan-aman, maun, alin feton, ka memberu familia seluk no bele ninia komunidade tomak. Ema ne’ebé kontra lulik bele hetan kastigu ohin, aban, bainrua, semana oin, fulan oin ka tinan oin. Kastigu hosi Lulik mak hanaran ‘malisan ou babeur’. Timoroan dala barak interpreta sorte aat, susar, terus ka mizeria seluk iha sira nia moris hanesan malisan ou babeur ida. Ezemplu, bainhira iha moras ruma no dotór sira kura labele, Timoroan sira interpreta katak ida ne’e dala ruma tanba la halo tuir buat hirak ne’ebé lulik regula ona. Nune’e mós bainhira feto ida susar hahoris ninia kosokoan, ema barak interpreta katak ida ne’e dala ruma relasaun entre feton no nan ladún di’ak iha uma laran ka iha konflitu ruma iha uma laran.  



Bainhira sosiedade la halo tuir buat hirak ne’ebé lulik determina ona, malisan sei kona sosiedade tomak hanesan sei iha konflitu no dizastre, hanesan, dizastre naturais, sosial, ka politikal. Daudaun ne’e, Timoroan barak, liuliu sira ne’ebé hela iha foho interpreta katak, sosiedade Timor nu’udár nasaun ida husik lerek ona nosaun Lulik no sira depende liu ba valor sira ne’ebé importa hosi liur. Rezultadu hosi hahalok ne’e mak la iha balansu entre valor rai laran (valor tradisional/valor inan/valor femininu) no valor hosi liur (valor modernu/valor aman/valor maskulinu). Kondisaun ida ne’e hanesan babeur ka malisan ida ba Timoroan sira, tanba ne’e mak krize hanesan 2006 mosu iha Timoroan nia leet. Timoroan sira haree katak krize 2006 hanesan malisan ka babeur ida ba nasaun Timor-Leste tomak.



  1. Lulik no Poder External iha Timor-Leste



5.1 Igreja Katolika



Igreja Katolika no Administrasaun Kolonial Portugés la’ós de’it adopta no uza konseitu lulik ba sira nia vantajen maibé mós sira kritika no ko’alia aat dehan Lulik ne’e buat ida ne’ebé la di’ak. Tanba ne’e Timoroan barak ohin loron haree katak lulik ne’e hanesan fiar ida ne’ebé negativu no la di’ak.



Hanesan explika ona iha leten katak, igreja adopta nosaun ‘Maromak’ hosi sistema fiar tuir tradisaun Timor nian no sira muda ninia jéneru hosi femininu ba maskulinu atu nunu’e ‘Maromak’ bele hanesan Igreja nia konseitu ‘Deus/Zeus/Yahwe’. La’ós ne’e de’it, Igreja adopta mos títulu lulik ‘Maromak Oan’ hosi ukun na’in Wehali nian ne’ebé aas liu hodi refere ba Jezús Kristu. ‘Maromak Oan’ iha Wehali refere ba entidade feto ida maibé ninia isin lolon mane. Baibain ema bolu Liurai Feto, maibé nia isin mane (haree Therik 2004). Daudaun ne’e ‘Maromak Oan’ sei iha nafatin ohin loron iha suco Wehali iha parte tasi feto Atambua nian iha Timor Osidental ne’ebá.



Ilustrasaun iha leten explika kona ba oinsá Igreja Katolika uza nosaun Lulik hodi establese sira nia an hodi habelar dotrina Igreja nian iha Timor tomak. Bainhira Igreja adopta termus lokal sira hanesan “Maromak”, “Maromak Oan”, “Na’i Lulik”, no “Amu Lulik”, hatudu momoos katak sira establese sira nia an iha Lulik nia kotuk. Ida ne’e fó vantajen di’ak ba Igreja hodi existe iha Timor no ladún iha rezistensia ba Igreja tanba ida ne’e.




Foto 10: Igreja ida iha Venilale ne’ebé nia modelu atu hanesan uma lulik no uza símbolu Lulik hanesan karau dikur. (Foto hosi Luis C, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/14594221?source=wapi&referrer=kh.google.com)



5.2 Administrasaun Kolonial Portugés (AKP)



La hanesan Igreja Katolika, AKP uza meius seluk hodi manipula nosaun Lulik ba sira nia vantajen. Molok AKP sai hosi Timor, sira hanesan instituisaun ida ne’ebé iha lijitimidade hosi sistema Lulik. Hodi aguenta iha Timor-Leste no hodi prevene rebiliaun hosi Liurai lokal sira, AKP halo meius hanesan kraik tuirmai:



5.2.1        Fahe Rota Bandeira, Sapeo no Livru ba Uma Lulik hotu iha Timor Laran Tomak



Bainhira sasán sira ne’ebé temi iha leten distribui ona ba Uma Lulik hotuhotu iha Timor-Leste, AKP husu ba Liurai no Dato sira atu rai sasán hirak ne’e iha Uma Lulik nia laran no sasán hirak ne’e sai Lulik no importante iha Uma Lulik nia laran. To’o agora, sasán hirak ne’e sei iha nafatin Uma Lulik sira nia laran. Bainhira ida ne’e akontese, Liurai sira susar tebes halo funu kontra ukun AKP tanba sira rai AKP nia sasán sai hanesan Sasán Lulik ne’ebé importante iha Uma Lulik nia laran. Ho meius ida ne’e, AKP establese ninia an ho lejitimasaun hosi Lulik no sira sai instituisaun ida ne’ebé hetan lijitimidade lokal hodi existe iha Timor.



5.2.2        Establese Relasaun Fetosan-Umane ho Timoroan

Esforsu ida tan ne’ebé AKP halo hodi prevene rebelde hosi Liurai lokal sira mak sira kaben ho feto Timoroan sira hodi hamoris relasaun fetosan-umane. Esforsu ida ne’e la’o ho di’ak tanba tuir konseitu Lulik relasaun fetosan-umane hanesan relasaun ida ne’ebé sagradu (Lulik). Ema ne’ebé iha relasaun Fetosan-Umane labele iha konflitu ba malu, labele funu malu no labele haree malu la di’ak. Laran tenke moos ba malu no tenke ajuda malu.



5.2.3        Hemu-Ran/Juramentu

Atu moris iha dame no hakmatek nia laran, Timoroan uza meius oioin hodi hamoris relasaun ne’ebé di’ak entre sira. Bainhira relasaun Fetosan-Umane labele hamoris, dalan seluk atu hamoris unidade ne’ebé tahan kleur hosi jerasaun ba jerasaun mak liu hosi juramentu ka ‘hemu-ran’. Hemu-ran hanesan ritual ida ne’ebé sagradu (Lulik). Ema ne’ebé partisipa iha ritual hemu-ran tenke fiar malu no ajuda malu hosi jerasaun ba jerasaun. Hemu-ran halo relasaun entre ema rua/familia rua/knua rua sai metin. AKP sira mós futu relasaun ho Liurai loka sira liu hosi hemu-ran. Ida ne’e hanesan evidensia ida ne’ebé hatudu katak sira uza konseitu lulik ka dalan kultura nian hodi mai ukun rai Timor.



5.3  Okupasaun Indonezia Nian

La hanesan ho Igreja Katolika no AKP ne’ebé manipula no uza konseitu Lulik ba sira nia vantajen, okupasaun Indonezia durante tinan 24 ignora nosaun Lulik. Invazaun Indonezia uza kampainha militar ne’ebé violente kahur ho fase kakutak Timoroan nian ho ideolojia Pancasila (prinsipiu 5) ne’ebé hamosu rezistensia hosi Timoroan iha rai laran. Rezultadu hosi ida ne’e mak, Timoroan sira vota sai Indonezia nia okupasaun liu hosi referendu iha 1999. Rezistensia kontra invazaun Indonezia ita bele dehan mai hosi valor fundamental ka Lulik ne’e rasik, tanba tuir perspektivu Lulik prezensa Indonezia nian la ho lejitimidade lokal ka lejitimidade hosi Lulik.



Realidade hatudu katak, Timoroan sira uza nosaun Lulik nu’udár forsa ida hodi funu hasoru invazaun Indonezia. McWilliam (2005) nota katak, movementu rezistensia klandestina bele moris nafatin tanba uza relasaun/ligasaun ida bazeia ba ligasaun uma lulik nian ne’ebé fasilita suporta komunikasaun no lojistika ba funu na’in sira.



6           Lulik iha Tempu Agora



6.1  Nível Lokal



Iha nível lokal iha área rural iha Timor-Leste Lulik sei moris nafatin no maioria populasaun sei pratika nafatin iha sira nia moris loroloron. Hari’i filafali Uma Lulik iha rai laran tomak sinál ida katak lulik sei iha futuru di’ak iha Timor-Leste. Ida ne’e mós hanesan mensajen ida katak Timoroan sira hakarak prezerva sira nia valor kulturais, moris nafatin no hetan respeitu iha moris kontemporariu.



Iha nível Suku, lei no regulamentu Lulik nia hanaran ‘bandu’ sei iha knar ne’ebé importante tebes hodi rezolve konflitu entre individual, familia ka komunidade iha rai laran tomak. Konflitu ne’ebé mak rezolve uza konseitu Lulik nian mak hanesan konflitu kona ba rai ka rekursu naturais seluk. Bainhira lei formal dala ruma komplikadu liu atu asesu, komunidade sira halai ba lei Lulik ninian tanba lei ida ne’e moris iha komunidade nia leet no bele asesu ho baratu.



Vantajen ida hosi Lulik nia lei no regulamnetu mak, Timoroan iha área rural sente katak prosesu ida ne’e hanesan sira nian rasik, sira mak na’in ba prosesu ida ne’e no sira iha konhesimentu ba prosesu ida ne’e. Sira iha fiar ba prosesu ida ne’e tanba prosesu bandu iha tiha ona hosi tempu uluk kedas no prova ona ho tempu.



6.2  Nível Nasional



Lider Timoroan barak mak ta’uk ka moe atu admiti katak Lulik ne’e iha duni. Sira hatene katak Lulik ne’e iha duni maibé ofisialmente sira nega bele karik dala ruma sira tuir no halo tuir iha pratika moris loroloron ho nonok de’it.



Instituisaun estadu Timor-Leste ninian tuir vizaun Lulik ninia sei hanesan instituisaun external tanba relasaun di’ak entre entidade rua ne’e seidauk establese no estadu Timor-Leste seidauk rekonhese no adopta valor Lulik iha ninia ejixensia. Bainhira fenómena ida ne’e kontinua, Timoroan sira fiar katak nasaun ida ne’e sei hetan konflitu politika no violensia barak iha futuru.



Relasaun violentu entre partidu politika sira no grupu oioin hosi Timoroan sira mak bele explika liu hosi diagrama kraik ne’e.




Diagrama 4: Lulik liha nível nasional



Diagrama iha leten hatudu katak, iha nível nasional Timoroan rekonhese, existe no hala’o moris nasaun iha de’it área politikal/maskulinu/kbiit no sira depende liu ba valor modernu ne’ebé importa hosi rai liur mai no ignora/nega tiha valor rai laran nian hanesan Lulik nia valor. Hanesan explika uluk tiha ona katak, bainhira área tolu ne’e la la’o hamutuk, ka iha lian seluk ita bele dehan, bainhira poder la iha ho autoridade, maskulinu la ho femininu, politika la ho ritual atu fó balansu no komplementa malu, mak sei tau sosiedade tomak iha risku nia laran. Bele dúvida, maibé fenómena ida ne’e kontribui ba violensia ne’ebé akontese iha Timor-Leste hosi 1999 ba leten.



Ezemplu dezharmónia seluk entre konseitu Lulik no kriasaun Estadu Timor-Leste refleta iha knanuk nasional (hino nasional) ne’ebé Timoroan sira hananu ‘Patria, Patria’ (rai aman, rai aman). Ida ne’e kontra konseitu Lulik, tanba Timoroan hosi grupu lingua tomak refere ba rai nu’udár ‘inan ida’ ka ‘rai inan’, nune’e duni rain ne’e femininu (rai inan) la’ós makulinu (rai aman). Rai ne’e femininu no hanesan inan ida tanba rai fó nia bokur ba ita ema hodi moris, hanesan mós inan ida ne’ebé fó nia susubeen ba kosokoan hodi moris.



Saida mak solusaun? Ita la presiza siénsia espasial na’in nian hodi hanoin ba ida ne’e. Timor-Leste nu’udár estadu ida bele aprende hosi experiensia Igreja Katolika nian no Administrasaun Kolonial Portugés nian ne’ebé adapta no uza sistema no valor lokal hodi hametin sira nia existensia iha Timor-Leste hanesan explika ona iha leten.



Konkluzaun



Lulik nu’udár valor fundamental Timoroan nian tenke hetan rekonhesimentu, suporta, no protesaun rasik no labele haree Lulik hanesan fali ameasa ida ba estadu maibé tenke haree ida ne’e hanesan rekursu ida hodi dezenvolve nasaun ne’e ba oin. Konstituisaun RDTL artugu 59.5 mós asegura katak, “ema hotuhotu iha diretu ba aproveitas kultural (cultural enjoyment) no kreatividade no mós obrigasaun atu prezerva, proteje no hafolin patrimóniu kultural"



Atu hamoris dame ba tempu naruk iha Tiimor-Leste, estadu Timor-Leste tenke rekonhese no hatama valor tradisional balun ne’ebé importante ba Timoroan sira hanesan explika ona iha leten. Atu halo ida ne’e bele liu hosi dalan hanesan juramentu nasional, distribui símbolu nasional sira ba Uma Lulik tomak, rekonhese lider tradisional sira nia knar, nsst.



Lulik nu’udár valor fundamental Timoroan nian tenke inklui iha kuríkulu eskola nian atu nune’e jerasaun foun iha oportunidade atu aprende sira nia valor rasik.



Referensia



Cinnati, Rui (1965). Tipos de casas timorenses e un rito de consagragion. In Actas de Congresso Internacional de Etnogrofia (Vol. IV), Lisboa: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar Pp. 155-180



Cristalis, Irena and Scott, Catherine. (2005). Independent Women: The story of women’s activism in East Timor. CIIR, London



Fox. James J. (2008). Repaying the Debt to Maukiak: Reflections on Timor’s Cultural Traditions and the Obligations of Citizenship in an Independent East Timor. In Democratic Governance in Timor Leste: Reconciling the Local and the National Eds David Mearns, CDU Press Darwin, Australia.



Hicks, D. (1984). A maternal religion, the role of women in tetum myth and ritual, Special Report no. 22, Monograph series on Southeast Asia, DeKalb Center fo Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illionis University



McWilliam, Andrew. (2005). ‘Houses of Resistance in East Timor: Structuring Sociality in the New Nation’ Anthropological Forum 15 (1): 27 - 44



Therik, Tom. (2004). Wehali: The Female Land – Tradition of a Timorese Ritual Center. Pandanus Books, Canberra



Trindade, Jose ‘Josh’ (2008). Reconciling Conflicting Paradigms: An East Timorese Vision of the Ideal State. In Democratic Governance in Timor Leste: Reconciling the Local and the National Eds David Mearns, CDU Press Darwin, Australia.